这篇文章主要实现了在Android中使用JDK的HttpURLConnection和Apache的HttpClient访问网络资源,服务端采用python+flask编写,使用Servlet太麻烦了。关于Http协议的相关知识,可以在网上查看相关资料。代码比较简单,就不详细解释了。

1. 使用JDK中HttpURLConnection访问网络资源

(1)get请求

public String executeHttpGet() {
		String result = null;
		URL url = null;
		HttpURLConnection connection = null;
		InputStreamReader in = null;
		try {
			url = new URL("http://10.0.2.2:8888/data/get/?token=alexzhou");
			connection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
			in = new InputStreamReader(connection.getInputStream());
			BufferedReader bufferedReader = new BufferedReader(in);
			StringBuffer strBuffer = new StringBuffer();
			String line = null;
			while ((line = bufferedReader.readLine()) != null) {
				strBuffer.append(line);
			}
			result = strBuffer.toString();
		} catch (Exception e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		} finally {
			if (connection != null) {
				connection.disconnect();
			}
			if (in != null) {
				try {
					in.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
			}

		}
		return result;
	}

注意:因为是通过android模拟器访问本地pc服务端,所以不能使用localhost和127.0.0.1,使用127.0.0.1会访问模拟器自身。Android系统为实现通信将PC的IP设置为10.0.2.2

(2)post请求

public String executeHttpPost() {
		String result = null;
		URL url = null;
		HttpURLConnection connection = null;
		InputStreamReader in = null;
		try {
			url = new URL("http://10.0.2.2:8888/data/post/");
			connection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
			connection.setDoInput(true);
			connection.setDoOutput(true);
			connection.setRequestMethod("POST");
			connection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
			connection.setRequestProperty("Charset", "utf-8");
			DataOutputStream dop = new DataOutputStream(
					connection.getOutputStream());
			dop.writeBytes("token=alexzhou");
			dop.flush();
			dop.close();

			in = new InputStreamReader(connection.getInputStream());
			BufferedReader bufferedReader = new BufferedReader(in);
			StringBuffer strBuffer = new StringBuffer();
			String line = null;
			while ((line = bufferedReader.readLine()) != null) {
				strBuffer.append(line);
			}
			result = strBuffer.toString();
		} catch (Exception e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		} finally {
			if (connection != null) {
				connection.disconnect();
			}
			if (in != null) {
				try {
					in.close();
				} catch (IOException e) {
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
			}

		}
		return result;
	}

如果参数中有中文的话,可以使用下面的方式进行编码解码:

URLEncoder.encode("测试","utf-8")
URLDecoder.decode("测试","utf-8");

2.使用Apache的HttpClient访问网络资源
(1)get请求

public String executeGet() {
		String result = null;
		BufferedReader reader = null;
		try {
			HttpClient client = new DefaultHttpClient();
			HttpGet request = new HttpGet();
			request.setURI(new URI(
					"http://10.0.2.2:8888/data/get/?token=alexzhou"));
			HttpResponse response = client.execute(request);
			reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(response
					.getEntity().getContent()));

			StringBuffer strBuffer = new StringBuffer("");
			String line = null;
			while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
				strBuffer.append(line);
			}
			result = strBuffer.toString();

		} catch (Exception e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		} finally {
			if (reader != null) {
				try {
					reader.close();
					reader = null;
				} catch (IOException e) {
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
			}
		}

		return result;
	}

(2)post请求

public String executePost() {
		String result = null;
		BufferedReader reader = null;
		try {
			HttpClient client = new DefaultHttpClient();
			HttpPost request = new HttpPost();
			request.setURI(new URI("http://10.0.2.2:8888/data/post/"));
			List<NameValuePair> postParameters = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>();
			postParameters.add(new BasicNameValuePair("token", "alexzhou"));
			UrlEncodedFormEntity formEntity = new UrlEncodedFormEntity(
					postParameters);
			request.setEntity(formEntity);

			HttpResponse response = client.execute(request);
			reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(response
					.getEntity().getContent()));

			StringBuffer strBuffer = new StringBuffer("");
			String line = null;
			while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
				strBuffer.append(line);
			}
			result = strBuffer.toString();

		} catch (Exception e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		} finally {
			if (reader != null) {
				try {
					reader.close();
					reader = null;
				} catch (IOException e) {
					e.printStackTrace();
				}
			}
		}

		return result;
	}

3.服务端代码实现
上面是采用两种方式的get和post请求的代码,下面来实现服务端的代码编写,使用python+flask真的非常的简单,就一个文件,前提是你得搭建好python+flask的环境,代码如下:

#coding=utf-8

import json
from flask import Flask,request,render_template

app = Flask(__name__)

def send_ok_json(data=None):
    if not data:
        data = {}
    ok_json = {'ok':True,'reason':'','data':data}
    return json.dumps(ok_json)

@app.route('/data/get/',methods=['GET'])
def data_get():
    token = request.args.get('token')
    ret = '%s**%s' %(token,'get')
    return send_ok_json(ret)

@app.route('/data/post/',methods=['POST'])
def data_post():
    token = request.form.get('token')
    ret = '%s**%s' %(token,'post')
    return send_ok_json(ret)

if __name__ == "__main__":
    app.run(host="localhost",port=8888,debug=True)

运行服务器,如图:

4. 编写单元测试代码
右击项目:new–》Source Folder取名tests,包名是:com.alexzhou.androidhttp.test(随便取,没有要求),结构如图:


在该包下创建测试类HttpTest,继承自AndroidTestCase。编写这四种方式的测试方法,代码如下:

public class HttpTest extends AndroidTestCase {

	@Override
	protected void setUp() throws Exception {
		Log.e("HttpTest", "setUp");
	}

	@Override
	protected void tearDown() throws Exception {
		Log.e("HttpTest", "tearDown");
	}

	public void testExecuteGet() {
		Log.e("HttpTest", "testExecuteGet");
		HttpClientTest client = HttpClientTest.getInstance();
		String result = client.executeGet();
		Log.e("HttpTest", result);
	}

	public void testExecutePost() {
		Log.e("HttpTest", "testExecutePost");
		HttpClientTest client = HttpClientTest.getInstance();
		String result = client.executePost();
		Log.e("HttpTest", result);
	}

	public void testExecuteHttpGet() {
		Log.e("HttpTest", "testExecuteHttpGet");
		HttpClientTest client = HttpClientTest.getInstance();
		String result = client.executeHttpGet();
		Log.e("HttpTest", result);
	}

	public void testExecuteHttpPost() {
		Log.e("HttpTest", "testExecuteHttpPost");
		HttpClientTest client = HttpClientTest.getInstance();
		String result = client.executeHttpPost();
		Log.e("HttpTest", result);
	}
}

附上HttpClientTest.java的其他代码:

public class HttpClientTest {

	private static final Object mSyncObject = new Object();
	private static HttpClientTest mInstance;

	private HttpClientTest() {

	}

	public static HttpClientTest getInstance() {
		synchronized (mSyncObject) {
			if (mInstance != null) {
				return mInstance;
			}
			mInstance = new HttpClientTest();
		}
		return mInstance;
	}

  /**...上面的四个方法...*/
}

现在还需要修改Android项目的配置文件AndroidManifest.xml,添加网络访问权限和单元测试的配置,AndroidManifest.xml配置文件的全部代码如下:

<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    package="com.alexzhou.androidhttp"
    android:versionCode="1"
    android:versionName="1.0" >

    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET" />

    <uses-sdk
        android:minSdkVersion="8"
        android:targetSdkVersion="15" />

    <application
        android:icon="@drawable/ic_launcher"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:theme="@style/AppTheme" >
        <uses-library android:name="android.test.runner" />

        <activity
            android:name=".MainActivity"
            android:label="@string/title_activity_main" >
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
    </application>

    <instrumentation
        android:name="android.test.InstrumentationTestRunner"
        android:targetPackage="com.alexzhou.androidhttp" />

</manifest>

注意:
android:name=”android.test.InstrumentationTestRunner”这部分不用更改
android:targetPackage=”com.alexzhou.androidhttp”,填写应用程序的包名

5.测试结果
展开测试类HttpTest,依次选中这四个测试方法,右击:Run As–》Android Junit Test。
(1)运行testExecuteHttpGet,结果如图:
(2)运行testExecuteHttpPost,结果如图:
(3)运行testExecuteGet,结果如图:
(4)运行testExecutePost,结果如图:

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  2. 用flask建好服务器之后本地可以访问,但是局域网中其他机器无法访问。防火墙已经关了。这是为什么?

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